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[复习指导] 华慧考博:2018年考博英语完形填空模拟试题及答案(1)

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发表于 2017-12-26 17:33 |显示全部帖子

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Aging poses a serious challenge to OECD(Organization of EconomicCo-operation and Development)countriesin particularhow to payfor future  public pension liabilities.And early retirement places an__1__burden on pension financing. There is noeasy solutionbut__2__retirement could help.


Early retirement may seem like a worthy individual goalbut it is asocially__3__oneand makes the present public pension system difficult to sustain forlong. The__4__reason is that more people are retiring early and living longer.That means more retirees depending on the__5__of those in work for theirincome. The__6__is worrying. In the next 50 yearslow fertility ratesand__7__life expectancy in OECD countries will cause this old-age dependencyrate to roughly double__8__size. Public pension paymentswhich afford30-80% of total retirement incomes in OECD countriesare__9__toriseon averageby over three percentage points in GDP and by as much as eightpercentage points in some countries.__10__is the pressure on pension funds thatthere is a danger of today‘s workers not getting the pensions they expected orfelt they__11__for.


Action is needed__12__simply aiming to reduce the__13__(and cost)of public pensionsor tryingto__14__the role of privately funded pensions within the systemthoughnecessary stepsmay be__15__to deal with the dependency challenge. After yearsof__16__early retirement schemes to avoid__17__and higher unemploymentmanygovernments are now looking__18__persuading people to stay in work until theyare older. Surelythe thinking goesif we are healthier now and jobs are physically less__19__andunemployment is downthen perhaps the__20__rate should rise anew.


1.[A] unsolvable    [B]additional    [C] unsustainable    [D] undue


2.[A] delaying      [B] retaining     [C]detaining        [D] hindering


3.[A] ultimate      [B]unattainable  [C] specific         [D] expensive


4.[A] substantial    [B]essential     [C] potential        [D] controversial


5.[A] ddonating     [B]sponsoring   [C] subsidizing      [D]funding


6.[A] outlook       [B]outcome     [C] outbreak       [D] outset


7.[A] prolonging    [B]expanding    [C] soaring         [D] rising


8.[A] in           [B] on           [C] by             [D] for


9.[A] conceived [B] reckoned [C] expected [D] meant


10.[A] As [B] Such [C] So [D] It


11.[A] should pay [B] paying [C] be paid [D] would pay


12.[A] but [B] for [C] and [D] thus


13.[A] multitude [B] implementation [C] application [D] generosity


14.[A] exaggerate [B] augment [C] magnify [D] multiply


15.[A] insufficient [B] influential [C] inefficient [D] intrinsic


16.[A] advancing [B] previous [C] ahead [D] preceding


17.[A] suspensions [B] abundances [C] redundancies [D] discrepancies


18.[A] for [B] to [C] about [D] at


19.[A] turbulent [B] strenuous [C] compact [D] intricate


20.[A] dependency [B] fertility [C] present [D] mortality


  答案


1.C 2.A 3.D 4.B 5.D 6.A 7.D 8.A 9.C 10.B


11.C 12.A 13.D 14.B 15.A 16.A 17.C 18.D 19.B 20.C


  总体分析

  本文主要讨论了老龄化给经合组织国家现存养老体系带来的挑战。文章第一段指出老龄化给经合组织国家带来的挑战,并提出推迟退休可能对解决该问题有所帮助。第二段分析了早退休给养老体系带来的问题,即越来越多的人早退休而寿命延长,随着出生率的降低,就会有更多退休的人依靠更少工作的人来为他们养老,养老金在国家财政中所占的比例增加,成为无法承受的负担。第三段探讨了解决方法,指出仅仅减少公共养老金的数量,增加私有养老的比例是不够的,许多政府在考虑说服人们晚退休。


  全文翻译

  老龄化给经合组织国家,尤其是在如何支付未来的公共养老金负债方面,带来了严重的挑战。早退休给退休金的融资带来了难以承受的负担。没有什么简单的解决方案,但推迟退休(年龄)可能有所帮助。

  早退休可能看起来是个值得追求的个人目标,但对于社会来说却是昂贵的,它使当前的公共养老金系统难以持久。基本原因是更多的人退休早而寿命却更长。这意味着更多的退休人员要依赖在职者的资助作为收入。这一前景是令人担忧的。未来50年,经合组织国家的低出生率和预期寿命的增加将使这一老年依赖率提高大约一倍。占经合组织国家全部退休收入30%-80%的公共退休金的支出,在国内生产总值中的比例预期将平均增加超过三个百分点,而在有些国家甚至会增加八个百分点。养老基金的压力如此之大以至于现在的工人有得不到他们预期或认为应该得到的养老金的危险。

  行动是必需的,但仅仅试图减少公共养老金的慷慨度或增加系统内私有养老金的作用,尽管是必要的,但在应对这种依赖挑战方面仍是不够的。前些年为了避免下岗及高失业,政府采取提前早退休的方案,而现在许多政府正考虑劝说人们晚点退休。当然,他们是这么想的,如果现在我们更加健康了、工作对体力的要求降低了、失业率也降低了,那么(工作)出席率可能也该重新上升了。

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